The Holocaust in World Literature ~ LIT 217

Dr. Jonathan Alexander
Office, Academic Center, 317
609-894-9311 or 856-222-9311 (x1123)
Online syllabus (Rev 2014)


Images from the Holocaust: A Literature Anthology (Brown, Stephens, Rubin 1996).
Once the Acacias Bloomed (Spiegel, 2004). (available from instructor for $15)

Course Description: This course will focus on unique written expressions across various types of literature, including novellas and short stories, plays for the screen and stage, non-fiction memoirs and diaries. The world literature to be investigated constitutes works on the Holocaust by men and women, Jews and non-Jews, private and public individuals, eyewitnesses, survivors, victims, and second- and third-generation writers. It’s an opportunity for each in our own way to hear the voices, feel the experiences, and promote awareness.


Course Expectations:

Attendance: If the student is to profit from any course, he or she must attend class on a consistent basis.

Students must attend all classes for the full duration of each session. Should you need to miss a class for observance of religious holidays, jury duty, military duty, bereavement, or illness, you must notify the instructor by telephone or e-mail prior to or within 24 hours after the class. Without such communication, students forfeit the right to make up missed work. If such communication is made, students will be permitted to make up missed work at the beginning of the following class meeting. It is, therefore, the student’s responsibility to read the syllabus and be prepared for current as well as missed assignments.

Entering class late or leaving class early (without prior authorization) is considered disrespectful and will not be tolerated.


Academic Etiquette: Students will respect themselves, their peers and their instructors by considering the following:

Cell phones must be kept on silent. No calls are to be made or received during class. If you are expecting an important call during the class meeting time, notify me prior to class and quietly excuse yourself if the call is received. No text-messaging or game-playing will be tolerated.

Students who wish to use the restrooms may do so by quietly leaving and re-entering the room. If a student believes he or she will require an absence of more than a few minutes, it is his responsibility to notify me accordingly.


Communication: Many means of communication are available to the student including telephone, e-mail and mailbox.

If you leave a message on my office voice-mail (x1123), please remember to speak clearly and provide your name, course information, and phone number if you request a return call.

If you contact me via e-mail, it is expected that you use the BCC “Mymail” account provided to you by the College. Messages sent through any other email account may not be received or responded to.

Students who send me e-mail and do not receive a reply of any kind within 48 hours should assume it was never received. Such e-mails should be resent. If your message doesn’t present itself as urgent, I may reply quickly and briefly and ask to get back to you before long.

Students who send e-mails containing attachments must save these documents as one of the following types: DOC, DOCX, TXT, or RTF. Please do not send any MAC “Pages” files, ODT, or WPS files. You may also choose to copy and paste the text of your assignment into the e-mail message itself, and always send a copy back to yourself  (or another email account) as a receipt to verify if the transmission fails to reach me.


Class Assignments:

All work written and submitted should utilize standard rules of grammar, sentence organization, paragraph organization, and diction.

All formal papers are to be typed, titled, double spaced, and carefully proofread. Documents are not to be held together by paperclips, alligator clips, or other creative measures. Papers will not be accepted unless they are stapled prior to arriving to class. Asking me to borrow a stapler will not place you in a positive light.

All assignments are due on the date specified on the syllabus. Assignments which are not submitted during the class session they are due will be penalized. If you happen to be absent for a particular class session and you wait to submit a paper until the next class meeting, it will lose 15% for each day it is late. NOTE: A “day” is a calendar day, not a class meeting. A paper which is received by email within two hours of the end of the assigned class session will be considered submitted on time (without a penalty for lateness). A paper which is received after two hours, but before 10pm, will incur a late penalty of 5%. All other papers received after 10pm on the assigned day will incur a 15% penalty per day.

If a student presents reasonable justification for an absence, this absence will not be counted against the student’s course grade; however, such an absence does not allow for more time to complete assignments. Since students are provided with all assignments and deadlines on the first day of the semester, excuses such as “crashed computers,” “misplaced data,” “misplaced flash drives,” or “empty printer ink cartridges” will not be accepted. There is no excuse for not saving all documents twice (hard drive and floppy/flash).


Plagiarism will not be tolerated under any circumstances. Be aware that plagiarism includes (but is not limited to) copying someone else’s words without crediting the source; paraphrasing someone else’s words without crediting the source; using someone else’s ideas without crediting the source (even if rephrased in your own words); using facts not universally known which are obtained from a source without crediting the source; asking someone else to write your paper, either in whole or in part; or obtaining a paper or portion thereof by any means and submitting it as an original document. The penalty for plagiarism is failure of the assignment and potentially failure of the course (at the instructor’s discretion), and it may result in suspension or expulsion from the College (at the discretion of the Student Affairs Committee). Please refer to the BCC Student Handbook for additional information regarding College regulations and the handling of plagiarism.


Questions to be considered: Is the Holocaust moving so far away from our reality that many individuals experience merely a mythological understanding? Why do so few people recognize the immediacy of messages portrayed in Holocaust writings? Can the literature be seen as purposeful and relevant across cultures? Can the literature be seen as some means of therapy? Is there a lesson to be learned? Can the story of the Holocaust even be told? Is there such a thing as “the story” of the Holocaust? If so, who is authorized to tell it? In what circumstances? To whom?

General Outline: To achieve the goals in this course, the student will be held responsible for the following work. (If this syllabus is accessed online, students can click on the following links for explanations of assignments and reading lists):

points earned

final grade

88.5 - 100


87.5 - 88


79.5 - 87


77.5 - 79


74.5 – 77


69.5 – 74


0 - 69


Note on assigned readings: Below are all the scheduled readings listed by author last name and page number. Following each author is a key question to get you started with interpretation. As you respond in your journal to the stated question, find a quote or passage from the selection that you feel is essentially important, compelling, or provocative. All readings listed in a session will be discussed during that session. Please have all scheduled readings and all journal responses completed and brought to each class. As this class is focusing on items of fiction, film, and memoir, no poetry will be covered, but please consider taking Poetry of the Holocaust here at BCC for additional exposure to Holocaust literature.


_1-22____SESSION 1
: Course Introduction
Discussion of procedures and selection of assignments
Historical background of the Holocaust (PPT part one—to Kristallnacht, 11-9-38)
FILM EXCERPTS-1: “The Longest Hatred” 44m



_1-29____SESSION 2: Chapter One--Rumblings of Danger (p. 1)
MELTZER (4): Why is it necessary to remember? What makes the Holocaust unique? What makes it universal? What kinds of “threats” did Jews live under?

ROGASKY (8): What were the significant elements prior to World War II which contributed to discrimination of the Jews?

ADLER (14): Why were there relatively few protests about the treatment of the Jews inside and outside of Germany? Comment on the following passage: “I don’t remember the pain. But I do remember the laughter of the other children” (15).

FRIEDMAN (22): Why is it poignant that the Nazis labeled people with physical disabilities as “undesirables”? Comment on the following passage: “You can have all the fun you want. You don’t have to worry about getting pregnant.” (24).

PLANT (25): How did the Nazi Party use postwar social unrest to its advantage? Comment on the following references: “syphilization of our people” and “the epidemic of homosexuality” (28).

FRIEDMAN (30): Why is it ironic that Jehovah’s Witnesses were given the opportunity to denounce their faith while Jews were not given similar opportunities? Comment on the following passage: “I didn’t feel as brave as I sounded” (33).

WEINBERG (34): Along with physical terror, what psychological terror could an event like Kristallnacht produce? Comment on the following passage: “…I think it is typical for the Nazi mind in which order and chaos were neatly compartmentalized” (39).



_2-5____SESSION 3: Video Presentation: Triumph of the Spirit
Historical background of the Holocaust (PPT part two—to Wannsee, 1-20-42)


_2-12____SESSION 4: Chapter Two--In Hiding (43)
KEREN (46): What images does this narrative evoke most strikingly for you while reading? Comment on the following passage: “I felt like an animal, ruled by instinct” (48).

STERLING (54): With what attitude does the speaker relate his experiences while in hiding? Comment on the following passage: “…it would’ve been comforting to know we weren’t the only ones” (58).

ORENSTEIN (60): How would you characterize the people who helped the Jews compared with those who refused to help them? Comment on the following passage: “One should not have children” (62).
Historical background of the Holocaust (PPT part three—to Nuremberg)


_2-19____SESSION 5: Chapter Three--Fleeing for Their Lives (73)
LUSTIG (88): Did
Hynek Tausig see himself as a brave man or a coward? How do you view him? Why do you think he took the action he did? Comment on the following passage: “That is how things are: some men are human beings and some are beasts. And some a little of both, and that’s me” (91).

JOFFO (94): What motivated the doctor to give the diagnosis that saved the boys? Comment on the following passage: “Well done!” (98).

RASHKE (109): What qualities did Esther have that made her the leader of the group? What role did faith play in her decisions? Comment on the following passage: “It was irrational to stake her life on a dream, Esther knew. But this was no time for logic” (111).


_2-26____SESSION 6: Chapter Four--Surrounded by Ghetto Walls (115)
WIESENTHAL (136): How were adults and children treated differently in the ghetto? Were you left with a sense of hope or despair after reading the selection? Comment on the following passage: “…in time they developed a sort of sixth sense for danger, no matter how small they were” (137).

GORDON (139): Why did the Nazis establish a Jewish government in the ghetto? Comment on the following passage: “Everyone would tell you what you wanted to hear. Each was trying to cheer you up and to cheer himself up” (139).

GORDON (142): What role did the Jewish police play? Should the Jews have given up their valuables? Comment on the following passage: “I could tell that the uncles felt sorry and that they knew they had made a mistake” (144).

MEED (145): What were the ghetto conditions that led some Jews to “voluntarily surrender” for deportation? Comment on the following passage: “The temptation, even for once, to still that gnawing hunger eclipsed all other considerations….” (146).

BUSH (174): What conflict does the narrator feel with his father? How does he act on this conflict? Comment on the following passage: “Maybe the faith that I thought I had when I was little was just a way of consoling myself, like sucking my thumb” (175).

_3-5____SESSION 7: Chapter Five--Imprisoned in the Camps (201)

ROMANO (203): How would you answer the narrator’s sister’s question, “What is a concentration camp?” Comment on the following passage: “All we could do was talk about politics and survival” (206).

LEVI (213): How does Levi describe and interpret how people act when they are condemned to death? Which incident or scene in the selection had the strongest impact on you? Comment on the following passage: “…man is bound to pursue his own ends by all possible means, while he who errs but once pays dearly” (214).

ELIACH (247): How did Michael and his cousin “beat the system?” Comment on the significance of the “washboard” criterion Mengele used for selection (248).

DELBO (251): Describe the gypsy mother’s fierce emotions and how Delbo uses language to create a mood of despair and hopelessness. Comment on the following passage: “You see nothing, each one is enclosed in the shroud of her own skin” (253).

FRANKL (267): How did Frankl transcend the conditions of the concentration camp to find a way to survive spiritually? What impact did nature seem to have on the author? Comment on the following passage: “Whether or not he is actually present, whether or not he is still alive at all, ceases somehow to be of importance” (269).



_3-12____SESSION 8:
MIDTERM EXAM; Video Presentation: The Grey Zone

____________________________________________ SPRING BREAK 3-17 to 3-21



_3-26____SESSION 9: Chapter Six--Resisting Evil (293)
VAN MANSUM (295): What factors influenced van
Mansum to help Jews and work for the resistance? Which of the author’s deeds was the most heroic and why? Comment on the following passage: “But I still say there was nothing special about what I did” (298).

ELIACH (307): What can you infer about the kind of person Zvi was? Why is it significant that the role he played was able to convince the widow? Comment on the following passage: “He reserved for himself the privilege of shooting the town’s notables…” (308).

LEVI (310): What is significant about calling the village a “republic of the marshes”? (310).  Comment on the following passage: “Despair is worse than disease” (315).

MEED (326): How did the attitudes of the local Polish population change the longer the uprising continued? What do you think is the most poignant statement made by Mordecai Anielewicz on pages 332-333? Comment on the following passage: “They had never expected the miserable Jews to put up a fight” (327).



_4-2____SESSION 10: Chapter Seven--Liberation (335)
WIESEL (337): What is the author’s emotional state at the time of liberation? What is the significance of the title, “Death Against Life”? Comment on the following passage: “I spent my days in a state of total idleness” (338).

LEVI (345): What emotions did Levi experience during the first few hours and days of liberation? How did shame affect various people during the Holocaust? Comment on the following passage: “But I was aware of what was going on around me in only a disconnected and hazy manner” (349).

SELZER (358): How did former prisoners react to Germans? Did their reactions influence American soldiers? Comment on the following passage: “I’d like to kill ’em with my bare hands” (365).

BOROWSKI (372): What was life like for the former prisoners? Do you think the actions of the former prisoners were justified? Comment on the following passage: “…please pass the sons of bitches over to the camp guards” (373).



_4-9____SESSION 11:
Special Guest Speaker: Fred Spiegel (LAU 320)
Film Essay Due (Triumph of the Spirit or The Grey Zone)


_4-16____SESSION 12: Chapter Eight--The Days After (375)
EICHENGREEN (397): How does this selection portray life in a displaced persons’ camp? What factors complicated the author’s quest to leave Germany? Comment on the following passage: “Even the future was blocked; I was still not free” (398).

GOTFRYD (403): What does the protagonist learn when he and his brother are reunited? Comment on the following passage: “Slowly I was coming to terms with the fact that, at the age of twenty, I was alone in the world” (404).

LEITNER (410): How does the author describe dangers survivors continued to face after liberation? Comment on the following passage: “There is no common language between us, yet we speak the same tongue” (414).

LEVI (431): How did the author react to being on German soil? What is the significance of his dream? Comment on the following passage: “I feel a deep and subtle anguish, the definite sensation of an impending threat” (434).

WIESEL (437): What does the author seek from God? What does he get? How does it make him feel? Comment on the following passage: “You must look at them carefully. Their appearance is deceptive. They are smugglers” (443).


_4-23____SESSION 13: ; Chapter Nine--A Mosaic of Courage (445)
OPDYKE (446): Why do you think the author felt compelled to share her story with others? Which of the author’s experiences had the biggest impact on you? Comment on the following passage: “I myself realize that when I came to the United States, I put a ‘Do Not Disturb’ sign on my mind” (451).

ELIACH (454): Why did Jacob’s mother push him away? How does irony play an important role in this piece? Comment on the following passage: “Jacob’s face was burning with insult and shame” (455).

NOMBERG-PRZYTYK (456): Why do you think Dr. Mengele kept Natasha alive just to listen to her tirades day after day? Who had the advantage, Natasha or Mengele, and why? Comment on the following passage: “Why should they suffer? I am sending them to the gas for their own good” (457).

BRECHER (460): What motives might have Schindler had for what he did? Do you see Schindler more as a hero or a self-serving opportunist? Comment on the following passage: “In the shower, they waited ten minutes to panic people” (462).
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY: Last Written Message


_4-30____SESSION 14: Chapter Ten--Echoing Reflections (513)
Journal Responses Due
PAPANEK (514): Why does the unanswerable question “why me?” have such an impact on many survivors? What does the concept of “survivor’s guilt” mean to you? Comment on the following passage: “She manages. She copes. She functions” (516).

ADLER (520): What lessons can be learned from the experiences of the survivors?  Comment on the following passage: “’Where was God?’ Is a difficult, perhaps impossible, question to answer. Some feel it is not even a proper question to ask. But ‘Where was man?’” (523).

ZABLE (526): Why does the German man feel he must atone for his father’s actions? What does he do? Comment on the following passage: “I grew up in a house of denials and secrets” (527).

FURTH (550): How does Furth justify her return to Auschwitz? How do these reasons evolve during the journey? Comment on the following passage: “Now I know why I have returned to Auschwitz” (553).


_5-7____SESSION 15:
Critical Analysis Due (Once the Acacias Bloomed)

FILM EXCERPTS #1—44m    The Longest Hatred       NAME_________________________________________



1. What accusation was widely accepted by Christians against Jews which gave rise to initial feelings of
anti-Semitism at the dawn of Christianity? _______________________________________________________________


2. What fraction of European Jews were killed by Nazism during the Holocaust? _________________________________

3. What Jewish approach to religion brought them into conflict with Pagan Romans?______________________________


4. What New testament source professed the notion that the Jews were responsible for the death of Christ? ____________


5. In what year occurred the destruction of the Second Jewish Temple of Jerusalem by the Roman Empire? ____________

6. When did Christianity become the official religion of the Roman Empire? ____________________________________

7. Who called the Jews the “common disgrace and infection of the whole world”? ________________________________

8. In 1095, who led the first Christian Crusade against the Moslems and Jews? __________________________________

9. Which British king was responsible for a massacre of several thousand Jews at York in 1190? ____________________

10. In what year did Pope Innocent III decree that Jews wear yellow badges to distinguish them from other people? _____

11. What public display of intolerance was encouraged by Christian clergy against Jews each Easter? ________________


12. What term correlated to the myth that Jews used the blood of Christian children during Jewish rituals? ____________

13. What term means the act of lending money with interest (the only income Jews were permitted by the Romans)? ____

14. In what year were more than 100,000 Jews tortured in and expelled from Spain under Isabella and Ferdinand? ______

15. Who established Protestantism in 1519 and denounced Jews with the suggestion of violence and intolerance? _______

16. In what year did Wilhelm Mahr first use “Anti-Semitism” as a derogatory term against Jews? ____________________

17. What composer wrote anti-Semitic and racist pamphlets which were embraced by Hitler? _______________________

18. Who was Hitler’s Enlightenment and Propaganda Minister? ______________________________________________

FILM EXCERPT #2—80m                                          NAME______________________________________



1. Explain how the characters exhibit different concepts of what it means to be Jewish.







Nazi Medicine

2. What did the July 1933 Sterilization Law attempt to accomplish?






3. Who were considered the “lives unworthy of living”?






4. What were the goals of the T-4 program?








5. Explain how Reynard Heydrich (Kenneth Branagh) exhibits uncompromising authority.








6. What did Heydrich think was ineffective about the Nuremberg Race Laws?








7. How do the characters illustrate the value and problems of euphemistic (symbolic) language?




8. How were the first experiments with gassing victims carried out?










9. What did the speaker mean by saying, “pink is as low as you can get”?











10. How is the concept of self-preservation at any cost illustrated in this excerpt?











Purple Triangles

11. How was the persecution of Jehovah’s Witnesses different from that of other ethnicities or religions?










Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport

12. What is the most striking, noteworthy, or remarkable concept expressed in this excerpt?

FILM EXCERPT #3—13m                              NAME______________________________________

Schindler’s List
1. What concept of self-preservation does the soldier propose to the victims?









2. How is the resourcefulness of the child displayed in this excerpt?










Swing Kids

3. What message of personal responsibility does Arvid express?











4. What concept of collective guilt is expressed?












5. How is it suggested that people don’t feel guilt about that which they don’t see?








Pink Floyd, “Another Brick in the Wall”

6. Considering the issues of education and relationships, explain how this piece illustrates the different concepts of authority in our lives?













7. How is resistance to authority illustrated?













8. How are weaknesses exposed?














9. How does the oppressed individual become the oppressor?

FILM EXCERPT #4—25m                              NAME______________________________________

Escape from Sobibor

1. How do the soldiers attempt to prevent future escape attempts?







2. What does the commanding officer mean by “simple mathematics”?








3. Choose three of the escapees being executed and describe how their “selection of a partner” expresses a unique visual gesture of compassion, sorrow or fellowship.








4. What is the overall tone of the discussion of escape?








5. What message of “bearing witness” does this excerpt suggest?








6. When the escape begins, what is suggested by the few prisoners who simply stand idly by in the courtyard?








7. Considering the percentage of the prisoners who escaped the camp that day, do you consider this a success?

FILM EXCERPT #5—30m                  NAME______________________________________


The Pianist

1.  How do the characters illustrate different views on the events that are unfolding?










2.  Why does Vladek (Adrian Brody) appear to believe it is unfortunate that his family has been reunited prior to deportation?










3.  What message is illustrated by the parable of the woman who smothered her baby while in hiding?










Life is Beautiful

4. What do you imagine the soldier is thinking of the woman just moments before stepping aside to allow her to board train?










5. Explain whether you think the father’s lies and exaggerations to his son about the events are a good or bad idea.


The Pianist

6. What does this excerpt say about randomness and chance?







Schindler’s List

7. What is ironic about Goeth’s shooting of the engineer?








8. What does the dying engineer mean by saying, “It will take more than that”?









9. What does this excerpt say about the meaningless of tasks and the barbaric working conditions?









The Believer

10. What do you think is both good and bad about “young” Daniel’s views of God (presented during flashback)?










11. In “young” Daniel’s opinion, what does the parable of the Jews’ Covenant with God suggest about the relationship between intention and action?

FILM EXCERPT #6—71m                              NAME______________________________________

Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State

1. What was the daily killing capacity at Treblinka, and how many were killed at Treblinka before it was dismantled?









Nazi Medicine

2. How do you feel about human experiments which might have resulted in valuable information for human well-being?









The Death Camps

3. What were the predominant emotions felt by the survivors who experienced their arrival at Auschwitz?










4. Describe the emotions portrayed by different individuals while in line for initial selection at Auschwitz.









The Last Days

5. How do you define the tone being used by the war criminal while describing the atmosphere of human experimentation?





Sophie’s Choice

6. What is Sophie’s immediate reaction to being told that she would have the “privilege” of choosing to save one of her children?








Schindler’s List

7. How would you describe this scene of “selection” to someone who’s never seen these images?








The Death Camps

8. Why would the Nazis reduce the killing of people to an “industrial process”?









Apt Pupil

9. With what tone does the Nazi soldier tell of the gas chamber process? Does he seem regretful and compassionate or cold and heartless?









The Grey Zone

10. How did the sonderkommando (“special squads”)  assist the Nazis by furthering the deception played onto the prisoners?








11. While the Nazi soldier hands the watch back to the sonderkommando (David Arquette) after the fight, what do you imagine the smiling soldier is thinking?









12. What do you think Arquette is thinking when he finally reaches up to take the watch?









13.  How do some prisoners come to the aid of others in dire moments of grief and exhaustion?









The Shawshank Redemption

14. How does Andy (Tim Robbins) feel about the role of hope during times of peril? How does Red (Morgan Freeman) feel differently?










15. What sense of hope does the rabbi portray in this scene, and would you be encouraged to hear this if you were one of the prisoners?

FILM EXCERPT #7—65m                              NAME______________________________________


1. How would you describe Janusz Korczak to someone who’s never read about him or his actions during the Holocaust?






2. How did the Warsaw Ghetto “underground” manage to make progress while maintaining nearly absolute secrecy?








3. How is the concept of German collective responsibility suggested in these scenes?








4. Interpret Korczak’s saying, “We cannot take another child, but then, we have no choice, do we?”








5. How did Korczak manage to keep the children calm (and possibly unaware of) their imminent destruction?








6. What does the suicide of Judenrat Leader Adam Czerniakow (Donald Sutherland) mean or signify to you?









7. Describe the significance of Mordechai Anielewicz (Hank Azaria) saying, “If you can’t fight, run. If you can’t run, then hide, but you must resist.”








8. If the resistors within Warsaw didn’t necessarily think they’d win this battle, what else did they suggest might have been their greater goal?









9. What role (or lack of role) did the Polish Underground play in the Warsaw Uprising?










10. What is the lasting impression left on you after witnessing these dramatic events?



FILM EXCERPT #8—28m                              NAME______________________________________


Liberation: Dachau

1. Why were the local townspeople brought in after liberation to view the devastation of Dachau?

















The Last Days

2. What impressions are relayed to you by the American liberators while retelling of their first encounter at Dachau?

















Band of Brothers, “Why We Fight”

3. How are the impressions of these dramatized scenes similar to or different from the archival footage and the witness testimonies from the previous excerpts?


FILM EXCERPT#9—47m                   NAME______________________________________



1.  What images of liberation are portrayed in this excerpt?









2.  How does the survivor react to the passerby on the trolley differently through the excerpt?









The Shawshank Redemption

3.  How might Morgan Freeman’s concept of being “institutionalized” apply to victims of the concentration camps?












4.  What does Brooks express in his voiced-over “suicide note” which relates to issues raised by authors of Holocaust experiences?











5.  What does Freeman mean by saying that Brooks “should have died in here”?





For each of the three episodes which follow, explain how they relate the difficulties of dealing with traumatic experiences and repression of painful memories:


6. M¬A¬S¬H















7. I-Robot















8. Reign Over Me

FILM EXCERPT #10—27m                            NAME______________________________________


Protocols of Zion

1.  How is a Jewish “conspiracy to destroy/control the world” proposed through the Protocols of the Elders of Zion?





2.  What is the relationship between Jewish concentration camps and the persecution of people of color?






3. How do you interpret the claim that “the world begins to believe what it wants to believe”?






4. How/why does the Neo-Nazi entrepreneur try to distinguish himself from more iconic Skinheads?






5. Why do you think he makes a point to say that he “bought beer in Auschwitz”?






6. What relationship between Israelis and Palestinians is portrayed in these excerpts?

FILM EXCERPT #11—41m                NAME______________________________________

School Ties

1. What does the schoolmaster mean by saying, “you people are very determined”?










2. How is anti-Semitism exhibited by those who do not necessarily mean harm, but also do not know they are in the presence of a Jew?










3.  What does Chris O’Donnell mean by saying that “Jews are different. It’s not like the difference between Methodists and Lutherans”?










American History X

4. To what degree do you believe Derek’s father is influencing Derek’s attitudes about race?











5. How was Derek influenced by the circumstances of his father’s death, and how have these forms his attitudes about race? 


6. What attitudes about race relations are shared and what are in conflict among members in the “dinner” scene?













The Believer

7. What does Danny mean by a “hierarchy of races”?














8. How would you interpret Danny’s claim that “we hate them … cause we hate them”?














9. How do you interpret the claim that “religion’s not about making sense”?


[1923]: Der Stürmer

[March 1923]: Schutzstaffel

[April 26, 1925]: Paul von Hindenburg

[March 22, 1933]: Dachau

[April 1, 1933]: Boycott

[April 26, 1933]: Gestapo

[May 10, 1933]: Book burnings

[July 1933]: Forced sterilization

[November 24, 1933]: Habitual and Dangerous Criminals

[June 30, 1934]: Homosexuals

[June 26, 1935]: Compulsory abortion

[September 15, 1935]: Nuremberg Laws

[November 14, 1935]: Law of Citizenship

[June 26, 1936]: Reinhard Heydrich

[July 15, 1937]: Buchenwald

[March 12/13, 1938]: Anschluss

[April 26, 1938]: Wealth and property

[July 1938]: Evian Conference

[July 23, 1938]: Identity cards

[August 8, 1938]: Mauthausen

[August 17, 1938]: Sarah and Israel

[September 29-30, 1938]: Munich Conference

[November 7, 1938]: Herschel Grynszpan

[November 9 and 10, 1938]: Kristallnacht

[November 12, 1938]: One billion marks

[December 1938]: Kindertransport

[May 15, 1939]: S.S. St. Louis

[May 15, 1939]: Ravensbrück

[September 1, 1939]: Poland

[September 21, 1939]: Einsatzgruppen

[October]: Action T-4

[October 26, 1939]: Forced labor

[November 1939]: Judenrat

[November 23, 1939]: Yellow Star

[January 1940]: Euthanasia

[January 25, 1940]: Auschwitz

[October 1940]: Warsaw

[March 1, 1941]: Birkenau

[September 29 and 30, 1941]: Babi Yar

[October 1941]: Zyklon B

[November 24, 1941]: Theresienstadt

[December 7, 1941]: Chelmno

[January 20, 1942]: Wannsee Conference

[May]: Sobibor

[June 1, 1942]: Buna-Monowitz

[July 22, 1942]: Treblinka

[July 23, 1942]: Adam Czerniaków

[August 5, 1942]: Janusz Korczak

[1943]: Sonderkommando

[January 18, 1943]: Resistance

[February 22, 1943]: White Rose

[April 19-30]: Bermuda Conference

[April 19, 1943]: Uprising

[May 30, 1943]: Dr. Josef Mengele

[August 2, 1943]: Treblinka revolt

[October 2, 1943]: King Christian X

[October 14, 1943]: Escape from Sobibór

[1944]: “Genocide”

[June 23, 1944]: Red Cross

[July 9, 1944]: Raoul Wallenberg

[October 1944]: Jehovah's Witness

[October 6-7, 1944]: Auschwitz revolt

[October 18, 1944]: Oskar Schindler

[November 8, 1944]: Death march

[January 27, 1945]: Liberation of Auschwitz

[May 7, 1945]: Surrender

[November 20, 1945]: Nuremberg Trials