HIS 213: Genocide

Dr. Jonathan Alexander
Office, Academic 317
609-894-9311 or 856-222-9311 (x1123)
E-mail: 
jalexander@bcc.edu
Syllabus: http:// http://staff.bcc.edu/faculty_websites/jalexand/213syl.htm
Museum Trip: http:// http://staff.bcc.edu/faculty_websites/jalexand/ushmm.htm

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Texts and Materials:

Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur (Kiernan, 2009)

Excerpts from various historical documentaries and feature films.

Online materials and resources as appropriate.

 

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Course Description:

This course presents a timeline of intolerance through an historical analysis of genocide. Students will discuss how prejudice and discrimination lead to human rights violations and challenges to social justice. Projects and topics center on the issues of conscience, ethics, and moral responsibility. Topics included, but are not limited to, genocides in Armenia, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, and Darfur.

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Course Objectives:

1.  Student will become more knowledgeable about historical events prior to and within the 20th Century as they relate to genocide, acts of atrocity, and human rights violations.

2.  Students will become familiar with the consequences of terrorism against and victimization of individuals and groups and the subsequent roles and responsibilities of the international community.

3.  Students will be able to identify and analyze various forms of individual and collective resistance to oppression.

4.  Students will be able to identify if similarities exist among the historical examples of genocides and massacres to determine if common causes or influences can be acknowledged and anticipated.

5.  Students will be able to analyze critically the creation and impact of victim, survivor, and witness testimony through various forms of expression and articulation.

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Course Expectations:

Attendance: If the student is to profit from any course, he or she must attend class on a consistent basis.

Students must attend all classes for the full duration of each session. Should you need to miss a class for observance of religious holidays, jury duty, military duty, bereavement, or illness, you must notify the instructor by e-mail prior to or within 24 hours after the class. Without such communication, students forfeit the right to make up missed work and will receive a zero for missed assignments. If such communication is made, students will be permitted to make up missed work at the beginning of the following class meeting. It is, therefore, the student’s responsibility to read the syllabus and be prepared for current as well as missed assignments.

Entering class late or leaving class early (without prior notification) is considered disrespectful and will not be tolerated.

Academic Etiquette: Students will respect themselves, their peers and their instructors by considering the following:

Cell phones must be kept on silent. No calls are to be made or received during class. If you are expecting an important call during the class meeting time, notify me prior to class and quietly excuse yourself if the call is received. No other use of phones in class will be tolerated.

Students who wish to use the restrooms may do so by quietly excusing themselves. If a student believes he or she will require an absence of more than a few minutes, it is his responsibility to notify me accordingly.

Communication:

If you leave a message on my office voice-mail (x1123), please remember to speak clearly and provide your name, course information, and phone number if you request a return call.

If you contact me via e-mail, it is expected that you use the BCC “Mymail” account provided to you by the College. Messages sent through any other email account may not be received or responded to.

Students who send me e-mail and do not receive a reply of any kind within 48 hours should assume it was never received. Such e-mails should be resent. If you send an email, it is your responsibility to check your own email to determine if my reply has been received. If your message doesn’t present itself as urgent, I may reply quickly and briefly and ask to get back to you before long.

Students who send e-mails containing attachments may save these documents as one of the following types: DOC, DOCX, TXT, or RTF. Please do not send any ODT, WPS or MAC “Pages” files. You may also choose to copy and paste the text of your assignment into the e-mail message itself, and always send a copy back to yourself  (or another email account) as a receipt to verify if the transmission fails to reach me.

Class Assignments:

All work written and submitted should utilize standard rules of grammar, sentence organization, paragraph organization, and diction.

All formal papers are to be typed, titled, double spaced, and carefully proofread. Documents are not to be held together by paperclips, alligator clips, or other creative measures. Papers will not be accepted unless they are stapled prior to arriving to class. Asking me to borrow a stapler will not ingratiate you.

All assignments are due on the date specified on the syllabus. Assignments which are not submitted during the class session they are due will be penalized. If you happen to be absent for a particular class session and you wait to submit a paper until the next class meeting, it will lose 15% for each day it is late. NOTE: A “day” is a calendar day, not a class meeting. A paper which is received by email within two hours of the end of the assigned class session will be considered submitted on time (without a penalty for lateness). A paper which is received after two hours, but before 10pm on the assigned day, will incur a late penalty of 5%. All other papers received after 10pm on the assigned day will incur a 15% penalty per calendar day.

If a student communicates an absence and presents reasonable justification, this absence will not be counted against the student’s course grade; however, such an absence does not allow for more time to complete assignments. Since students are provided with all assignments and deadlines on the first day of the semester, excuses such as “crashed computers,” “lost data,” “misplaced flash drives,” or “empty printer ink cartridges” will not be accepted. There is no excuse for not saving all documents twice (hard drive and floppy/flash). Make use of the College’s computer labs before the assignment is due.

Plagiarism will not be tolerated under any circumstances. Be aware that plagiarism includes (but is not limited to) copying someone else’s words without crediting the source; paraphrasing someone else’s words without crediting the source; using someone else’s ideas without crediting the source (even if rephrased in your own words); using facts not universally known which are obtained from a source without crediting the source; asking someone else to write your paper, either in whole or in part; or obtaining a paper or portion thereof by any means and submitting it as an original document. The penalty for plagiarism is failure of the assignment and potentially failure of the course (at the instructor’s discretion), and it may result in suspension or expulsion from the College (at the discretion of the Student Affairs Committee). Please refer to the BCC Student Handbook for additional information regarding College regulations and the handling of plagiarism.

Assignments: To achieve the goals in this course, the student will be held responsible for the following work.

CLASS PARTICIPATION AND CONTRIBUTION (20 pts): Daily reading assignments, writing assignments, sharing of ideas, and independent and student-led group discussions and activities.

ACTION POSTER (20 pts): Students will work in pairs to construct a 24x36-inch poster illustrating one of the genocides or ethnic massacres discussed in class. The poster should be informative, creative and persuasive. It should incorporate text and images as suitable. Consider how shape, images, symbols and perspective can be used to communicate a message. Consider what emotion should be evoked, what message should be transmitted, and to whom it should be directed. Options include the following groups:

Spanish Inquisition

Salem Witch Hunt

African Slave Trade

Native Americans

Herero/Nama (Namibia)

Armenia

Jewish Victims of the Holocaust

Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust

Cambodia

Bangladesh

Guatemala

Rwanda

East Timor

Bosnia

Chechnya

Sudan

Sierra Leone

Congo

FILM ANALYSIS (20 pts): This analysis shall be 1500 to 2000 words in length. Students will write an analysis of Hotel Rwanda, shown in class on session 11. Questions for consideration appear in syllabus below.

MIDTERM EXAM (20 pts): Objective and short-answer questions covering the first half of the semester material.

FINAL EXAM (20 pts): Objective and short-answer questions covering the second half of the semester material.

 

points earned

final grade

88.5 – 100

A

86.5 – 88

B+

79.5 – 86

B

77.5 – 79

C+

74.5 – 77

C

69.5 – 74

D

0 – 69

F

Schedule of assignments: Before each class, please have all assigned chapters read to enable more comprehensive discussion. All videos listed are excerpts of historical documentaries or feature films to be shown in class; no advanced preparation is necessary. Supplemental handouts and outlines will be provided at certain times of the semester.

 

SESSION ONE: August 28 ~ “The Causes of Intolerance”

Introduction, (1-40)

Video: Introduction to Racism and Genocide

 

SESSION TWO: September 4 ~ “Origins of Colonialism”

Chapter 5The English Conquest of Ireland, 1565-1603, (165-212)

Chapter 6, Colonial North America, 1600-1776, (213-248)

Video: Indians and Africans in America

 

SESSION THREE: September 11 ~ “The History of Intolerance”

Chapter 7, Genocidal Violence in Nineteenth-Century Australia, (249-309)

Video: Genocide from Biblical Times, the Inquisition and the Witch Trials (46 mins)

 

SESSION FOUR: September 18 ~ “American Colonialism”

Chapter 8, Genocide in the United States, (310-363)

Video: Native Americans (Part 1, 28 mins) (Part 2, 26 mins)

 

(TRIP TO DC HOLOCAUST MUSEUM, Sat., September 21st)

 

SESSION FIVE: September 25 ~ “European Colonialism”

Chapter 9, Settler Genocides in Africa, 1830-1910, (364-390)

Video: Irish Famine and The Herero and Nama Tribes (Part 1, 32 mins) (Part 2, 32 mins)

 

 

SESSION SIX: October 2 ~ “The Bloodiest Century”

Chapter 10The Armenian Genocide: National Chauvinism in the Waning Ottoman Empire, (391-415)

Video: Armenia (35 mins)

 

SESSION SEVEN: October 9 ~ “The Birth of ‘Genocide’”

Chapter 11Blut und Boden: Germany and Nazi Genocide, (416-454)

Video: The Holocaust (Part 1, 29 mins) (Part 2, 22 mins)

 

SESSION EIGHT: October 16

►Midterm Examination

 

SESSION NINE: October 23 ~ “Great Leap Forward”

Chapter 12, Rice, Race, and Empire: Japan and East Asia, (455-485)

Chapter 13, Soviet Terror and Agriculture, (486-511)

Chapter 14, Maoism in China: A Rural Model of Revolutionary Violence, (512-538)

Video: Nanking

 

SESSION TEN: October 30 ~ “Ethnic Cleansing I

Chapter 15, From the Mekong to the Nile: Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda, (539-569)

Video: Cambodia and Rwanda (Part 1, 39 mins) (Part 2, 36 mins)

 

SESSION ELEVEN: November 6

Film: Hotel Rwanda (MEETING IN LIBRARY TELECONFERENCE CENTER)

 

SESSION TWELVE: November 13 ~ “Ethnic Cleansing II”

Epilogue: Racial and Religious Slaughter from Bangladesh to Baghdad, (571-606)

Video: Bangladesh, East Timor and Bosnia

 

SESSION THIRTEEN: November 20 ~  “Civil War and Capitalism”

Film: Sand and Sorrow (MEETING IN LIBRARY TELECONFERENCE CENTER)

 Action Posters Due (Group One)

 

(NO CLASSES, Wed, November 27th)

 

SESSION FOURTEEN: December 4  

Film: Africa, Sudan, Sierra Leone and Congo

►Film Analysis Due (Hotel Rwanda)

►Action Posters Due (Group Two)

Final Exam Review

 

SESSION FIFTEEN: December 11  

►Final Exam

 

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Information for Film Essay, Hotel Rwanda:

(Topics to consider when constructing essay for submission)

 

1. What kind of person does Paul initially appear to be to us, the viewers?

2. What event seems to start the genocide? Is the political & historical background handled by the film adequately? (Was enough information given to explain why the genocide occurred?) Explain.

3. What do you think UN Colonel Oliver means when he says, “We are peace-keepers, not peace-makers.”? Is there a difference? If so, what is it? If not, why does he say this? Why does the UN withdraw its forces and the non-Rwandan inhabitants? Explain the UN Colonel’s disturbing comments on the UN’s decision not intervene. What do you think he means when he tells Paul, “you’re not even a nigger”?

4. Describe your reaction to the scene immediately after Paul’s meeting with George Rutaganda (in car w/ Gregoire). Why do you think the filmmakers decided to film the genocide this way?

5. Recall the convoy of Rwandans who have obtained visas to leave. What are your thoughts on the conflict between Tatiana & Paul after he decides to stay. Place yourself in one of the two characters position. What are they feeling during this scene? Why? Is there one person who is more “correct” than the other? Why?

6. How is Paul able to convince General Bizimungu into helping him at the end? What does this say about how the outcome of the war might have ended differently?

7. Rwanda was widely considered the most “Christianized country” in Africa. Close to 90% of Rwanda claimed to be Christians. How do you account for the genocide which occurred in light of this information? Based on the end of the film, what might you speculate about Rwanda's future (from the perspective of 1994)?

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Guide to Key Information from Text

Introduction, 1

Farmers versus ethnically alien town dwellers, 2

Religious or racial hatred, territorial expansionism, cults of antiquity and agriculture, 5

Cain and Ham, 5

Emphasis on cultivation , 5

Perpetrators and Dissenters, 6

“30 million”, 8

Historical and Legal Definition, 9

“Holocaust” , 9

genocide”, 10

1948 U.N. Convention , 11

Acts of Genocide, 12

Five legal categories (Physical and Biological), 13

Gendercide, 13

cultural and political, 13

Genocidal Massacres and Exterminations, 13

 “genocidal massacres”, 13

Other Acts Facilitating Genocide, 16

other criminal acts, 16

deliberate inaction , 16

Genocidal Intent, 17

specific intent” without “specific motive”, 17

intentionality and purposefulness, 19

Genocide Studies, 20

“Late warning”, 20

detectable warning signs, 21

Common Ideological Features of Genocides, 21

Racism, 21

“Five great races”, 22

prejudice and discrimination , 22

inferiority, anteriority, superiority, 22

phobia of contamination”, 22

The Ideal, the Irrational, the Nostalgic, and the Technology, 23

Idealism, 23

biological purity, historical decline, and rural romanticism, 27

Cults of Antiquity, 27

Sparta and Carthage, 28

Cults of Cultivation, 29

importance of land and farm life, 29

Agriculture and Expansion, 31

settler monopoly”, 33

fear of economic competition, 33

Genocidal Pragmatism, 33

Perpetrators, bystanders, victims and survivors, 34

Historical Connections, 35

Eugen Fischer, 36

Recognizing Genocide, 37

Part Two, Settler Colonialism

Introductory Note, 165

silva / savage, 165

false notion”, 167

Chapter 5, The English Conquest of Ireland, 1565-1603, 169

colonum / colony, 169

The Anglicization of Antiquity, 170

The Irish and Carthage, 177

Land and Ideology, 177

English manner and English tongue, 177

maketh men more civil”, 182

the wild Irish”, 183

savage and brute beasts”, 185

The Conquest, 187

Irish language, 187

a lane of heads”, 192

till the diseases be perfectly found”, 193

Forbidden / banned , 194

“…and the rest will fall like leaves of trees”, 195

not one Irish man found could be trusted”, 196

Famine , 197

a race apart”, 202

persuasion and evangelization , 203

“…worse than horse and mule”, 203

Genocide and Extermination, 203

“…like ghosts crying out of their graves”, 205

martial law , 209

blank slate”, 211

nowhere to hide”, 212

 

Chapter 6, Colonial North America, 1600-1776, 213

Land and Ideology, 216

unmanned wild country”, 217

no injury”, 219

Seventeenth-Century Virginia, 219

Three Anglo-Powhatan wars, 221-3

extinct”, 224

Early New England, 225

wholly human”, 225

Pequots , 234

false gods”, 236

King Philip’s War, 236

“30%”, 240

Extermination and Genocidal Massacres in the 18th Century, 241

thieves and murderers”, 242

“…state and condition of the mother”, 242

“…might be the possession of any other”, 243

small pox , 244

Franklin , 246

 

Chapter 7, Genocidal Violence in Nineteenth-Century Australia, 249

Aborigines, 249

Labor was devalued, 250

Killings could occur with impunity, 252

Armed dispossession, 256

Genocidal Massacre on the Bathurst Plains, 256

Women and children, 262

feigning”, 263

Tasmania: Agriculture and Genocide, 265

Abandon children, 267

The Black War, 273

“Self defense”, 274

“Capture them if you can, but if you cannot, destroy them”, 277

“Black Line”, 278

“4,000 to 14”, 279

Land and Race, 1835-1900, 280

Phrenology, 282

Escalating Massacres in New South Wales, 1835-45, 285

fertilizer”, 268

guilt by association”, 288

Frontier Victoria, 1834-50, 289

Infanticide, 294

Pastoral Visions and Violence in Gippsland, 295

Victoria’s Western District, 299

now defunct”, 300

Genocide in the Outback, 1850-1900, 303

dispersal”, 307

“…got only what they thoroughly deserved” , 308

Social Darwinism, 308

 

Chapter 8, Genocide in the United States, 310

Land and Race in the Revolution and Early Republic, 311

1803 U.S. Indian policy, 314

chosen people”, 318

War, Expansion, and Genocidal Massacres, 318

heart of their country”, 319

license to commit murder”, 320

their names to be no more”, 322

ceding their eastern lands”, 325

“$1,000 each”, 325-6

1803 Louisiana Purchase, 327

Ethnic Cleansing: The Trail of Tears, 330

“…partial evil to produce a general good”, 330

Removal Treaty of 1830, 332

Martin van Buren, 334

Extermination in Texas, 334

universal enemies to man”, 334

pursue and kill”, 337

take blood for blood”, 342

1840 Battle of Plum Creek, 347

Genocide in California, 349

Polygenesis, 349

lawless tribes of contending barbarians”, 350
“forced indenture of Indian children”, 352

Genocidal Massacres on the Great Plains, 355

adult crania”, 356

Treaty of Laramie, 358

L. Frank Baum, 362

Theodore Roosevelt , 363

 

Chapter 9, Settler Genocides in Africa, 1830-1910, 364

The French Conquest of Algeria, 1830-1875, 364

half-savage”, 366

Neglect of Algeria’s lands, 367

Razzia, 369

“825,000”, 374

German Views of Indigenous Peoples, 374

Immanuel Kant, 375

no resource but to exterminate”, 377

German Settler Colonialism, 377

Lebensraum , 379

Conquest and Genocide in Southwest Africa, 381

Herero and Nama, 381

“Let us die fighting”, 381

August 11, 1904, 383

Opening genocide of the twentieth century, 386

not fully human”, 390

 


 

Part Three, Twentieth-Century Genocides, 391

Introductory Note, 393

 

Chapter 10, The Armenian Genocide: National Chauvinism in the Waning Ottoman Empire, 395

Historical Background to the Armenian Genocide, 396

First to adopt Christianity, 396

Millet system, 396

bloody sultan”, 398

1894-96 killings, 400

Young Turks and Armenians, 400

union of religions with race”, 401

tubercular microbes”, 401

a foreign body”, 402

Turkification”, 404

barbarous and uncivil” , 405

Young Turks, 406

Genocide, 408

February 1915, 408

Intellectuals, 409

Deception, 410-11

October 1918, 414-15

crimes against the laws of humanity and state”, 414-15

 

Chapter 11, Blut und Boden: Germany and Nazi Genocide, 416

Tradition of anti-Semitism, 417

Antiquity and the Holocaust, 417

Mein Kampf, 418

limit the number allowed to live”, 420

“…there before he arrived”, 422

Idealization of Cultivation, 422

“Selective breeding”, 425

Hereditary Farm Law, 428

Auschwitz, 429

Cities and Jews, 430

rootless wanderer”, 431

Territorial Expansion, 432

Race and Space, 437

cleansed of Jews”, 437

“40-45 million”, 438

prevent the growth of weeds”, 439

Mischling, 440

Untermenschen, 440

Ethnic cleansing, 440

typically German abilities”, 442

“…so that the better may live”, 444

Endlosung, 445

“Infant mortality”, 449

physical traits”, 450

avengers”, 452

“9,000”, 453

 

Chapter 12, Rice, Race, and Empire: Japan and East Asia, 455

Emperor, Antiquity, and Agriculture, 457

one family” 458

native rice 459

Idealizing the Peasantry, 461

Agrarianism and Violence, 465

Agrarianism and Expansion, 470

Overpopulation 470

Nanking 473

“Millions to Manchuria” 475

school text 475

Conquest and Cultivation in China, 475

November 15, 1937 475

manners, morals, decency” 476

head of the five races” 478-79

proper place in the world” 480

 “three alls” 481

War and Race, 482

Kamikaze 484

 

Chapter 13, Soviet Terror and Agriculture, 486

the idiocy of rural life” 488

Bolsheviks and Peasants, 489

illiterate village life” 490

an agreement with the countryside” 491

Stalinism and Peasants, 497

Kulaks 498

strictest economies” 503

The Ethnic Element in Stalin’s Terror, 503

Holodomor 503

“Either we do it, or they crush us” 505

 

Chapter 14, Maoism in China: A Rural Model of Revolutionary Violence, 512

Peasant Communism, 514

“…not a dinner party” 520

killed on false charge” 521

The Land Reform Campaigns, 1947-52, 525

1947 National Land Conference 528

every peasant a middle peasant” 528

The Great Leap Forward, 529

not be a total disaster” 531

crash collectivization, voluntarist, crash industrialization, massive urbanization 531

People’s Communes, “the family will disappear”, “voluntary labor” 532

The Cultural Revolution, 536

violence confused identities” 537

 

Chapter 15, From the Mekong to the Nile: Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda, 539

Cambodia, 540

“Khmer Cultural Base” 543

five vanna 546

1.7 million 549

recoup historical losses” 552

still have 6 million people left” 553

Rwanda, 554

back” to Ethiopia 555

bitter memories of Tutsi rule 555

“Nazism against the Tutsi minorities” 557

principal of equality” 557

cockroaches” / inyenzi 558

RTLM 562

inter-ethnic war” 562

pulling out the roots of the bad weeds” 566

“When you see that small nose, break it” 567

Interahamwe 568

Conclusion, 569

“Accusation in the mirror” 569

 

Epilogue: Racial and Religious Slaughter from Bangladesh to Baghdad, 571

Bangladesh, 572

Influence of India’s Hindu culture 573

“4 million people in 48 hours” 574

“I am not concerned with the people” 575

Indonesia and East Timor, 576

Suharto 578

Man-made famine 580

Vote for independence 581

Guatemala, 582

Five Maya groups 582

policy of scorched Communists” 584

Iraq, 585

Kurdish minority 585

Bosnia, 587

superiority and accompanying vulnerability” 588

malignant disease” 589

Territorial Expansion, 589

our lebensraum in Bosnia” 590

Restoring Lost History, 591

Idealization of Rural Life , 592

unbearable situation of total insecurity” 593

Srebrenica 594

Genocide in the Twenty-first Century, 594

Janjaweed 595

Fur, MassalitZaghawa 596

Al-Qaeda, 596

assault whoever assaults you” 597

“What we are practicing is good terror” 598

killing Muslims … is defending ourselves” 604

Conclusion, 604

Myth of an untouched empty land 605

 

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CLASS VIDEO GUIDE

SESSION ONE Video: Introduction to Racism and Genocide

 

Biological / Racial theories of differences in skin color (“Some other explanation for skin color other than geography.”)

 

Are African peoples the same species as white Europeans, or are they merely “half-animal”?

(Caliban in Shakespeare’s Tempest reinforces stereotype that slaves are not fully human.)

 

Aristotle claimed slavery was a natural phenomenon, though without regard to skin color.

 

Genesis 9.25, Noah’s curse of “Ham”

 

1849, Thomas Carlyle, “Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question”: “Inequality is a proper way to rule a society” <http://homepage.newschool.edu/het//texts/carlyle/carlodnq.htm>

 

1865, Governor Edward Eyre and the Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica

 

1850, Dr. Robert Knox, “The Races of Men”: Scientific racism claimed that “race is everything.” (“Can the black races become civilized? I should say not.”)

 

Samuel George Morton (American Craniologist): “The bigger the skull, the bigger the brain.”

 

Tasmanians, Africans, American Indians were perhaps “not fully human at all.”

 

1859, Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: “Natural selection” explained and justified the expansion of the great British race.

 

Notable “Social Darwinists”: Thomas Henry Huxley (“Darwin’s Bulldog”) and Herbert Spenser (who coined the term “survival of the fittest” after reading Darwin). Imperialism in Tasmania, America, andAfrica was justified by social Darwinism.

 

“The White Man’s Burden”: “The supposed or presumed responsibility of white people to govern and impart their culture to nonwhite people, often advanced as a justification for European colonialism.”

 

“Eugenics” or Human Selective Breeding, developed by Sir Francis Galton (Darwin’s cousin)

 

1904, Eugen Fischer and the Rehoboth Bastards (Miscegenation and racial mixing in Namibia)

 

27 American states passed marriage laws in the 20th Century prohibiting interracial marriage (to protect white race)

 

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Nazi Eugenics funded by American philanthropists

 

“T-4”: Nazi program for euthanasia of mental patients

 

1933, Raphael Lempkin: “Genocide” (genos, race or tribe; cide, kill)

 

Genocide Convention of 1948: “Intent or action to annihilate a group as such.”

 

169 million civilians and 34 million soldiers killed in all wars between 1900 and 1987

 

What can / will be learned for the next time?

SESSION TWO Video: Indians and Africans in America

 

African Slave Trade

 

Ethnic Cleansing of the Native Indians: “Save the child and kill the Indian.”

 

____________

“The Downward Spiral”

 

“Indentured Servants”: promise labor to wealthy person for 7 years in return for safe passage and eventual freedom.

 

1624, first arrival of slaves in Dutch New Amsterdam (Manhattan)

 

Atlantic Creoles

 

Right to earn and keep wages; right to negotiate for greater autonomy

 

“Half-freedom” status, living on Free Negro Laws

 

1640 Trial of John Punch

 

Carolina Colony first slave “society”

 

Royal Africa Company and the expansion of capitalism

 

Quarantining on Sullivan’s Island

 

Spiritual bonding, even among African rivals

 

2:1 ratio of enslaved Africans to free whites in Carolina low country

 

Rice Plantation Task System and the “sound of exploitation”

 

The branding of runaways (or worse)

 

The Stono Rebellion of 1739 and the development of the “Black Code”

 

____________

“Genocides in the making”

 

1921 Greenwood Riots in Tulsa, Oklahoma (Largest single incident of racial violence in U.S. history)

 

1923 Fanny Taylor and the Rosewood Massacre in Sumner, Florida

 

SESSION THREE Video: Genocide from Biblical Times, the Spanish Inquisition

 

Biblical Allusions to Good and Evil

 

Athens’ attack on Milos

 

Alexander the Great

 

Atilla the Hun

 

Ghengis Khan and the Mongols

 

Crusades / Religious motivations for evil

 

Columbus and the Native Americans

 

English Colonization and the Tasmanian Genocide

 

_______________________________

The Catholic Church and the Spanish Inquisition

 

Crime of Heresy: “a one-way journey to hell”

 

Deviant sexual morality

 

Medieval Anti-Semitism: responsible for crucifixion, rejection of Christ as son of God

 

1391 Spain (Seville, Cordoba)

 

Converts (conversos)

 

Grand Inquisitor, Scribes, Interrogators, Doctors, Torturers

 

“Volunteer” confessions / Betrayals / Spies, Informants (familiares)

 

Unjust processes: “secret testimony” and unrevealed nature of crime

 

Dilemma of Isabella and Ferdinand: March 1492, convert or leave the country

 

“The hanging of pork in public view.”

 

November 1, 1478: Pope Sixtus IV and the birth of the Spanish Inquisition

 

Grand Inquisitor Tomas de Torquemada

 

Sentencing: auto de , or act of faith (carried out by civil authorities)

 

Branding (punishment and deterrent)

 

Burning at the stake: uncooperative heretics and repeat offenders

 

Strangulation offered as an “option” to confessors

 

Posthumous Trials

SESSION FOUR Video: Native Americans


1763 Pontiac Rebellion / “Line of Proclamation”

 

The Gnadenhutten Massacre of 1782

 

Black/White vs. Indian/White relations

 

____________________________________

General Custer and the Battle at Little Big Horn, June 25, 1876

 

“An obstacle to progress.”

 

“The way [the land] should have been used.”

 

Defiance of Lakota Chief Red Cloud

 

Crazy Horse

 

William Tecumseh Sherman, the Black Hills and the Laramie Treaty

 

“Manifest Destiny”

 

The “Great Conversion” and the Reservation Project

 

Sitting Bull as a “symbol of resistance”

 

Reports of massacre at the Little Big Horn River: journalistic liberty or war propaganda?

 

The Myth of “The Last Stand”

 


 

SESSION FIVE Video: Irish Famine and The Herero and Nama Tribes

 

Use of famine as military strategy

 

Irish Potato Famine (1845-47): Government-sponsored or Divine intervention?

_______________________

German Geographer Friedrich Ratzell and lebensraum (“living space”)

 

Instigation of Race Wars

 

General Lothar von Trotha and the Herero “Rebellion” at Waterburg (August 11, 1904)

 

Von Trotha’s “Extermination Order”

 

Germany’s First Slave Labor Camp at Swakopmund (~2000 deaths)

 

“Death by exhaustion” at Shark Island Death Camp

 

Nama or Hottentot: newest victims of genocide (September 1906)

 

Skull-trading and race science

 

Eugen Fisher’s influence on Nazism and Dr. Josef Mengele

 

Germany’s acknowledgement of responsibility (2004)

 


 

SESSION SIX Video: Armenia

1876, Sultan Abdul Hamit and the Armenian Crisis

 

Turkish Denial: “A forgotten history”

 

August 1894, first acts of Armenian genocide by “The Great Assassin”

 

1896, Kaiser Wilhelm awarded Abdul Hamit

 

1909, Sultan’s Ottoman Regime by “Young Turks”: Enver Pasha, Talaat Pasha, Djemal Pasha

 

50% extermination of Turkish Armenians

 

Resistance towards recognizing acts as Genocide

__________________________

 

Armenian civil war or genocide?

 

Official Turkish state denial

 

Raphael Lemkin and the UN Genocide Convention

 

The Forty Days of Musa Dagh

 


 

SESSION SEVEN Video: Holocaust

Influence of Spanish Civil War

 

“The ultimate example of genocidal horror.”

 

Martin Luther on Judaism (16th Century)

 

Militarism, Nationalism, and Totalitarianism (Authoritarianism)

 

Use of propaganda to influence national mentality

 

Various non-Jewish victim populations

 

Formation of ghettos

 

Invasion of Russia (Operation Barbarossa, August 1941)

 

Creation of death camps (Arbeit Macht Frei: “Work Brings Freedom”)

 

16 million murdered

 

United Nations Charter and Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal

 

Adolf Eichmann: “Merely following orders.”

 

“No gradation of suffering.”

 

“I felt that everybody had let us down.”

 

The Ten Suggestions: “Thou Shalt Never, But Never, Be a Bystander.”

 

KZ Mauthausen Concentration Camp, last camp to be liberated

 

Untermenschen, subhumans, parasites, asocials

 

1/3 didn’t survive transport to camps

 

“Stairs of Death”  →

 

Capos: “self-administration” (prisoners in charge of other prisoners)

 

“Death Bath Action”

 

Categories: Political prisoners (red)    Criminals (green)    Immigrants (blue)

Jehovah’s Witnesses (purple)    Homosexuals (pink)    Asocials (black)    Jews (yellow)

 

Gas chamber, 30sq m., capacity 1,800, 4-20 minutes

 

Sonderkommando: Squad of 6-12 charged with removal and cremation

 

“Little acts of discrimination … lead inevitably to all kinds of atrocities.”

 


 

SESSION TEN Video: Cambodia and Rwanda

Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia

 

Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge establish the Democratic Republic of Kampuchia

 

Extermination centers target Vietnamese, Lao, Thai, Chinese

 

1-3 million dead

 

Tuol Sleng Prison (S-21)

 

Agrarian Reform: Stalin + Mao Tse Tung + Pol Pot = 40 million dead

___________________

 

US-backed Cambodian Government

 

April 17, 1975—Fall of Cambodia to Khmer Rouge

 

“Return to Cambodia’s Medieval greatness” (anteriority)

 

“The Khmer Rouge are murderous thugs, but we won’t let that stand in our way.” (Kissinger)

 

Angkar (“The Organization”): the supreme authority in Cambodia

______________

Interahamwe: Hutu paramilitary youth movement

 

Plan to exterminate all Tutsis in Kigali

 

Black Hawks shot down in Mogadishu, Somalia

 

8:30pm, April 6, 1994: Plane of Hutu Rwandan President Paul Habyarimana shot down

 

RPF: Rwandan Patriotic Front (Tutsi)

 


 

SESSION TWELVE Video: Bangladesh, East Timor and Bosnia

Attack of East Pakistan: abduction, rape, incarceration, suicide

 

January 1972, Bangladeshi Independence

 

1975-76, East Timor seeking independence from Indonesia

 

April 6, 1999, East Timorese church massacre (5-year-anniverary of Rwanda)

 

11:37 (additional East Timor info) 35:20

 

Yugoslavia and Slobodon Milošević (President of Serbia)

 

Slovenia and Croatia attempt to secede: two-year campaign of destruction (1992-94)

 

Feb 2001, UN establishes rape as War Crime

 

Genocide of Albanians in Kosovo

 

March 1999, Clinton and NATO attack Serbian targets in Kosovo

 

2001, Milošević indicted on crimes of genocide at the Hague


 

SESSION FOURTEEN Video: Africa, Sudan, Sierra Leone and Congo

 

Ethiopia (1974-1987)—Halli Silesi, deposed by Colonel Mengistu of the Derg, the Communist military party that imposed its Red Terror

 

Uganda (1971-79)—Idi Amin, self-appointed President for life—invasion of Tanzania

 

Burundi (December 1993— ~150,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus killed, leading to reprisals in January 1994 and the shooting down of Hutu President Habyarimana’s plane on April 6)

 

Congo 1996-97—Killing of Hutu Refugees

____________________________________

 

Sudan (Dec 2003—May 2004)

 

Janjaweed (“Devils on Horseback”): Government-backed Black Arab militia, largely nomadic tribes, attack Black Africans, mostly a sedentary population, in a battle over resource and land allocation

____________________________________

 

Sierra Leone (1991-2001)

 

$220/year family income

 

Civil War between Government and Revolutionary United Front

 

Amputation of limbs to deter from “actively participating in politics”

 

Wars in Dem. Rep. of Congo, Angola, and Liberia also funded by blood diamonds

____________________________________

 

Congo (1998-2003), controlled by armed Hutu militia “Interahamwe,” refugees from 1994 Rwandan genocide

 

 

 


 

PowerPoint Lecture Notes

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

       “At the beginning of the world, all was homicide.”

       Humans inherently evil, warlike and competitive

       Struggle for land

 

Introduction (cont.)

       Pogrom

       Religious/racial hatred

       Territorial expansion

 

Introduction (cont.)

       Cult of Antiquity

       Cult of Cultivation

 

Historical and Legal Definition

       “Holocaust”

       “Genocide”

       1948 UN Genocide Convention

       nullum crimen sine lege

 

Acts of Genocide

       Physical, biological
(
gendercide, cultural, political)

       Genocidal Massacres

       Genocidal Moments

 


 

Genocidal Massacres and Exterminations (cont.)

       “A people coming into possession of a land by war
do not always exterminate the ancient inhabitants.” (Thomas Hobbes)

 

Other Acts Facilitating Genocide

       Conspiracy

       Incitement

       Attempt

       Complicity

       Deliberate Inaction

 

Genocidal Intent

       Outcomes based—requires INTENT

       Does not require MOTIVE

       No “blueprint” required

       A means to an end

 

Racism

       Race not a predictor of behavior

       Prejudice

       Discrimination

 

Racism (cont)

       Victim’s Inferiority

       Victim’s Anteriority

       Victim’s Superiority

 


 

Cults of Antiquity

       Sparta’s defeat of Carthage

       Roman Empire

 

Cults of Cultivation

       Land was coveted

       Believed to have been misused

 

Agriculture and Expansion

       Earth was to be cultivated and polished

       Threat to diasporas (Jews and Gypsies)

       Colonial massacre of native populations

 

Genocidal Pragmatism

       Requires skill

       Focus on external threat

       Temporary alliances

 

Historical Connections

       Herman and Heinrich Goering

       Eugen Fischer

 


 

CHAPTER FIVE

Introductory Note

       Use of Nature as metaphor

       Latin SILVA (“woods”) = English SYLVAN

       Root word of SAVAGE

       Jefferson’s False Notion

 

English Conquest of Ireland

       Latin COLONUM (“farmer”) = English “COLONY” or “COLONEL”

 

 

Anglicization of Ireland

       England seen as civilized by Roman laws

       Irish equated with Carthage as barbarians

 

 

Land and Ideology

       (1515) Thomas More’s Utopia

       “Cultural Genocide” ~ annihilation of heritage

       Continuing focus on cultivation

       Anthony Trollope

 

The Conquest

       (1537) King Henry VIII banned Irish language

       Humphrey Gilbert’s “lane of heads”

       Use of Biological metaphor

       Restrictions on Irish

 


 

The Conquest (cont)

       Focus on leaders and intelligentsia

       Concept of racial ESSENTIALISM

       Famine as military strategy

       Irish considered “a race apart”

 

Genocide and Extermination

       20 – 70 Irish starved per day

       (1585) Irish Parliamentary legislation defining
“English” and “Irish” to imply nationality rather than ethnicity

       Victims’ heads sent to Dublin

 

Genocide and Extermination (cont)

       English Lord Mountjoy’s conflicting conscience

       Ireland made a blank slate

 

Chapter Six
Land and Ideology

       Future agricultural potential

       Ireland as model for colonial violence

       “Unmanned wild country”

       Vacuum Domicilium

 

Seventeenth-Century Virginia

       Three Anglo-Powhatan Wars (1609, 1622, 1644)

       “Nothing unjust”

 

Seventeenth-Century Virginia (cont)

       John Smith and the Spanish model

       Powhatan’s extinct by 1685

 


 

Early New England

       Puritans initial view of Indians

       Smallpox epidemic of 1633

       Fate of the Pequot Indians

       Indian cultural restrictions

 

King Philip’s War

       July 1675, 14 months, 3000 victims

 

Extermination and Genocidal Massacres in the 18th Century

       Puritan Minister Cotton Mather: “Thieves and murderers”

       English Philosopher John Locke: “Cult of Cultivation”

       Biological warfare

 


 

CHAPTER SEVEN

Genocidal Violence in 19th-Century Australia

       “Aboriginal” / “Aborigines”

       Absence of agriculture

       Paradox: British subjects without rights or legal protection

       Armed dispossession

 

Genocidal Massacre on the Bathurst Plains

       Women and children

       “The blackfellow was not a human being and . . .
there was no more guilt in shooting him than in shooting a native dog.”

 

Genocidal Massacre on the Bathurst Plains (cont)

       War of extermination

       Feigned negotiations

       Displayed lack of clear motive, but excluded Aborigines and failed to protect

 

Tasmania: Agriculture and Genocide

        By 1818, population fell from 4,000 to 2,000

       “Why should we buy land when we can occupy as much as we want for nothing?”

 

The Black War

       1823-1831, 500 Aborigines killed

       “Capture them if you can, but if you cannot, destroy them.”

       The Black Line of 1830

       By 1859, population reduced to 14

 


 

Land and Race

       1844, Race “science” of PHRENOLOGY linked skeletal
physiology with capacity for intelligence

 

Escalating Massacres in New South Wales, 1835-45

       Collective Punishment or “guilt by association”

 

Genocide in the Outback

       1824-1908: 8,000-10,000 Aborigines were killed in Queensland, Australia

       Victim’s Anteriority: “For untold centuries the aborigines have had the use
of this country, but in the march of time they, like the extinct fossil, must make way….”

 


 

CHAPTER EIGHT

Genocide in the United States

       Practiced when necessary

       Cultivation and Expansion

 

Land and Race in the Revolution and Early Republic

       1803 US Indian Policy

       Men had a “natural right to land”

 

War, Expansion, and Genocidal Massacres

       Jefferson’s justification for murder and object of war

       Shawnee Treaty

       Bounty on Indian scalps

       Louisiana Purchase of 1803

       War of 1812

 

Ethnic Cleansing: The Trail of Tears

       Cherokee Nation

       Indian Removal Act of 1830

       Choktaw Nation’s “increase”

       Van Buren’s declaration

       “Trail of Tears” (1837-38)

 

Extermination in Texas

       Stephen F. Austin and the Battle of Plum Creek (1840)

 


 

Genocide in California

       Legalized forced indenture of Indian children

       By 1860, California Indian population fell from 100,000 to 32,000

 

Genocidal Massacres on the Great Plains

       US Army Medical Museum

       The Lakota Sioux, Red Cloud and the Treaty of Laramie (1868)

 

Genocidal Massacres on the Great Plains (cont)

       General Custer and the Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)

       The Wizard of Genocide

       600,000 to 250,000 (1800-1890)

       Roosevelt: “…nine out of ten are….”

 


 

CHAPTER NINE

The French Conquest of Algeria, 1830-1875

       French invasion of Algiers, 1830

       Razzia

       825,000 dead in 45 years

 

German Views of Indigenous Peoples

       German use of US as model

       Merciless violence

       Thomas Carlyle and “Social Darwinism”

 

German Settler Colonialism

       Friedrich Ratzel and victims’ “inferiority”

       “Lebensraum” and territorial expansion

 

Conquest and Genocide in Southwest Africa

       1885, Heinrich Goering covets land of Herero and Nama

       Submission of Nama Chief Witbooi (1894)

       Herero Chief Maharero encourages resistance

 

Conquest and Genocide in Southwest Africa (cont)

       Lothar von Trotha, German commander

       August 11, 1904

       Trotha’s “extermination order”

       Nama population fell 50% in 7 years

       Damara bystanders

 


 

Conquest and Genocide in Southwest Africa (cont)

       Opening genocide of the 20th Century

       Bernhard Dernberg, German Secretary for Colonial Affairs (US colonial model)


 

CHAPTER TEN

Historical Background to the Armenian Genocide

       4th Century Christianity

       Millet System

       “The Bloody Sultan” Abdul Hamit (1878)

 

Historical Background to the Armenian Genocide (cont)

       Armed “Hamidiye

       “First” Armenian Genocide (1894-96)

       Forced conversion to Islam

 

Young Turks and Armenians

       (1907) Young Turks and the Committee of Union and Progress

       “tubercular microbes” and “foreign bodies”

       Policy of “Turkification

       (1913) Radical Young Turks grab power: Enver, Talât, and Jemal Pasha

 

Genocide

       Armenian persecution

       “Second” Armenian Genocide (1915)

       Deception, deportation, extermination

 

Genocide (cont)

       500,000 killed in 1915 alone

       Clear MOTIVE and premeditation

       End of WWI, defeat, responsibility

 

 


 

CHAPTER ELEVEN

Blut und Boden,
Germany and Nazi Genocide

       Long tradition of Anti-Semitism

       Usury

 

Antiquity and the Holocaust

       “Mein Kampf” (1924)

       Third Reich (1933)

       Hitler and American Colonialism

 

Idealization of Cultivation

       Richard Darre, “selective breeding”, and territorial expansion

       Hereditary Farm Law

       Himmler’s vision for Auschwitz

 

Cities and Jews

       “aboriginal peoples”

       Industry versus Agriculture

 

Territorial Expansion

       Losses of World War I

       Cult of cultivation

       Fear of low German birth rate

 


 

Race and Space

       Judenrein

       Other victims

       “Euthanasia” and “Eugenics”

       Law for Protection of German Blood and Honor (1935),
Mischling” and “untermenschen

 

Race and Space (cont)

       June 1941, Operation Barbarossa and the mobile “Einsatzgruppen

       Sterilization

       Endlosung” or Final Solution

       Wannsee Conference: January 20, 1942

 

Race and Space (cont)

       Polish Jews and yellow stars

       “Physiology” of Jews

       Himmler and the murder of children

       Separation, humiliation, extermination

       2740

 

 


 

CHAPTER TWELVE

Emperor, Antiquity, and Agriculture

       “One family”

       Religious intolerance

       Native rice

 

Idealizing the Peasantry

       Targeting of urban society

       Hybrid economy

 

Agrarianism and Violence

       Farmer ~ Warrior

       Japanese imperialism

 

 

Agrarianism and Expansion

       Overpopulation

       Anti-Western sentiment

       Chinese capital, example of “wickedness

       August 1936, “Millions to Manchuria”

       Japanese Thought Bureau

 

Conquest and Cultivation in China

       November 15, 1937, “Rape of Nanking”

       “…manners, morals and decency…”

       Chinese and Korean peasants uprooted

       September 1940, Tripartite Pact

       Medical experiments

       “Three alls”

 

War and Race

       Shintoism imposed

       Kamikaze

 

Chapter Thirteen
Soviet Terror and Agriculture

       Stalin’s political and ethnic attacks

       Soviet urban economic model

 

Bolsheviks and Peasants

       “Cruel actions”

       Urban and rural famine

 

Stalinism and Peasants

       “Liquidation of the kulaks”

       Exile and improsonment

       “Strictest economies”

       Anti-privatization

 

The Ethnic Element in Stalin’s Terror

       Suffering of Ukrainians

       1932-33, Holodomor

       Victim’s superiority

 


 

Chapter Fourteen
Maoism in China

       Mao Zedong assumed leadership in 1935

       1958-60, Great Leap Forward

       1966-76, Cultural Revolution

 

Peasant Communism

       Reliance upon peasantry

       1927, Mao’s “dinner party” speech

 

The Land Reform Campaigns, 1947-52

       Chinese civil war

       1947 National Land Conference

       Equalization of holdings

 

The Great Leap Forward

       13-30 million people starved

       Four features: crash collectivization, anti-materialism, crash industrialization, urbanization

       People’s Communes

       Crop failure

 

The Cultural Revolution

       250,000 – 8 million killed or driven to suicide

       Class-oriented campaign ~ racial prejudice

 

 


 

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

Cambodia

       Contamination

       Khmer Cultural Base

       Work according to one’s station

       CPK’s anti-intellectual, anti-urban policies

       Vanna

 

Cambodia (cont)

       Democratic Kampuchea’s revolution

       1975-79, 1.7 million deaths

       Pol Pot campaign of extermination

       Threat of contamination

       Official statement of genocidal motive

       “Kamikaze”

 

Rwanda

       1992, Leon Mugesera’s Hutu uprising

       1898, German colonization of Tutsi kingdom

        Hutu persecution by Belgian colonists

        Hutu feelings of historical injustice

        1962, Rwandan independence from Belgium

 


 

Rwanda (cont)

       1972, Burundi-Tutsi massacre of 200,000 Hutu

        1973, President Habyarimana’s “principal of equality”

        1990, Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)

        April 6, 1994

        RTLM (“Free Radio and Television for the Thousand Hills”) and war propaganda

 

Rwanda (cont)

       Cult of cultivation

       “Pulling out the roots”

       Inyenzi (cockroach)

       Interahamwe (Hutu youth wing)

       “Accusation in the mirror” (superiority)

 

 

 


 

Epilogue

Bangladesh

       Influenced by Indian Hinduism

       General Tikka Khan

       March 25, 1971 ~ “Operation Searchlight”

       300,000 - 1 million Muslims and Hindus

 

Indonesia and East Timor

        25-year annexation of East Timor

        1975, President Suharto’s “New Order”

        100,000-150,000 killed

        “Selective killing” of 20,000 ethnic Chinese

        Man-made famine

        1999 vote for independence

 

Guatemala

       1962-1996 ~ 200,000 civilian deaths

       1981-83 ~ Gen. Lucas Garcia, Mayans

       “Policy of scorched Communists”

       Mayan cultural genocide

 

Iraq and Bosnia

        Saddam Hussein murders 100,000 ethnic Kurds

        Bosnian “supremacy and … vulnerability”

        Christian Serbs attack “inferior” Muslims

        Milosevic, Karadzic and Mladic

        Anti-urban ethnic cleansing

        Srebrenica ~ “survive or disappear”


 

Sudan and Al-Qaeda

        Darfur’s Arab Janjaweed militia

        Land-grab of Fur, Massalit and Zaghawa

        1998, Osama bin Laden’s anti-Americanism

        “Good terror”

        Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi ~ “Killing Muslims … is defending ourselves”

 

Conclusion

       Ethnic supremacy

       Antiquity

       Agriculture

       Expansion